Nowadays, we are witnessing a rapid spread of multimodal mobility in our cities and a willingness on the part of communities to promote new mobility behaviors. These changes are causing road networks to evolve and grow with modifications that are often far from being optimally designed, and public authorities are beginning to investigate how to integrate new paths and roads for the new soft transportation modes (bicycles, e-scooters, etc.).
Plastics recycling is a major current issue, making it possible to reduce the ecological and environmental impacts linked to their production and consumption. This involves developing specific recycling processes depending on the plastics. Present in great variety in all plastics, additives cause an issue in mechanical recycling (the most widely used recycling method): their presence and mixture results in poor quality recycled material. Some additives, which have become regulated, pollute the recycled material and prevent its further use.
Process efficiency in the field of energy and biomass conversion is a contemporary and urgent societal issue. Heterogeneous catalysis is a key enabling technology towards this goal. In that context, understanding catalysis at the molecular level for minimizing the use of rare and noble metal will contribute to make processes more environmentally friendly, i.e. by moving from supported nanoparticles to smaller clusters or isolated metal sites.
Biofuels as well as bio-based chemicals production represent a major transition to reduce our dependence on fossil resources. Biomass is an efficient, ecological and economically viable resource to meet both the problem of energy diversification, CO2 emissions reduction in the transportation sector, as well as to diversify chemicals formulation on the market.
Recycling of PET polymer through chemical recycling routes has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years, to cope with plastics streams not handled by classical industrial PET mechanical recycling routes. The development of recycling processes dedicated to colored and opaque PET is a major challenge for reducing waste, developing new resources for the production of recycled PET, and therefore reducing the use of fossil resources to produce PET.
Catalytic processes have long been used regularly in academia and in various industries. One of the major objectives of catalysis today is to improve catalytic systems by combining the performance of homogeneous catalysis with the ease of implementation of heterogeneous catalysis.
Solid/liquid emulsions, known as Pickering emulsions, are an excellent means of preparing well-controlled batch liquid/solid/liquid media. These emulsions can then be transformed into catalytic micro-capsules with a well-controlled geometry.
To limit greenhouse gas emissions, IFPEN is developing new amine-based solvents for CO2 capture in fumes (thermal power stations, steelworks, cement factories…). These mainly contain CO2, water, N2 and O2 but also different impurities such as sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at different concentrations depending on the emitter. In contact with these species, amines can undergo degradation, which leads to losses of amines and formation of volatile products which are potentially harmful to the environment.
The thesis aims to investigate the relationship between structure and reactivity of transition metal sulfide within lithium-sulfur batteries. Lithium-sulfur batteries have theoretically very important assets (specific energy three times higher than lithium-ion, low cost, low toxicity) yet they are penalized by some limitations. Among them, a strong redox shuttle, short lithium polysulfides that leads to self-discharge and severe capacity loss. Transition metal sulfides such as MoS2 are known to trap and catalyze the transformation of these lithium polysulfides.
To overcome challenges related to the energy area, IFP Energies nouvelles is now proposing a process to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. A cocktail of enzymes produced by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used during the enzymatic hydrolysis step of this process. The genetic engineering of this fungus is one of the solutions that has allowed us to optimize the cost of this hydrolysis step in recent years. In the continuity of these studies, the question of the potential of secondary metabolites produced by this fungus must be asked today.
Environmental and health concerns are now accelerating behavioral changes related to personal mobility in an unprecedented way.